Tests and Protocols

Carotid IMT

Carotid duplex imaging is used to measure intima-media thickness (IMT), a measure of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) which has been shown to correlate with CVD risk factors.

Vascular Stiffness

The cause of the increased vascular stiffness with age in humans is not known.

Endothelial Function

Changes in arterial function and structure are thought to precede measurable atherosclerosis and may be the earliest markers for disease potential.

Other Noninvasive Measures

The ankle-arm index (AAI) is a standard noninvasive measure used in research that correlates with CVD events, CVD mortality and overall mortality in many populations.